文言雅韻·詩詞之美 ^古今以智相積而我生其後攷古所...

通雅·卷首一·撰音義雜論攷古通說

tōng·juànshǒu·zhuànyīnlùnkǎotōngshuō
míng·fāngzhì
  • gāoyáng

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通雅·卷首一·撰音義雜論攷古通說 tong ya· juan shou yi· zhuan yin yi za lun kao gu tong shuo
作者:方以智 fang yi zhi
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^古今以智相積而我生其後攷古所以決今然不可泥古也古人有讓後人者韋編殺青何如雕板龜山在今亦能長律河源詳于濶濶江源詳于緬志南極下之星唐時海中占之至太西入始為合圖補開闢所未有可畫定禹貢之積石岷山太初之天官不必求多哉子思在魯繆時核以遷表自不得見孔子焦弱侯曰伯魚生子思而卒在孔子前猶不決耶不告而娶在底豫後孔子無誅少正卯之事三一公斷斷然也【吳觀我宫諭別號三一】學庸貴闡禮經之心不必苦辨古文畫卦即是文字不必苦辨倉帝詩之為樂琴曲之為兔園左傳非丘明夾漈得之俊卿之論魯禮戴埴之言泮宮非學戴和之論雝和張柬之明二十五月禫史繩祖明常儀為官升菴以脩文御覽定西施之死郝京山之言周官春秋明辨類函言老子出於管子頤生微論明內經之附上此皆獨發虛舟子衍河圖為洛書【王化卿先生長於吾桐最精河洛】漳浦公衍天方圖【庚辰中丞公與石齋先生在西庫論易衍此中丞公歎曰此方圓同時圖】尤為絶學曠代始聞智常見數千年不决者輙通攷而求證之春王正月聚訟詞費明堂朝廟不悟通稱昭穆祫禘膠執其名繪繡齋斧遂成典故合止祝敔乃限六聲黍離王風豈得言降四時五行即為六宗娶妻生子辟卦周七春官庿樂無商二十八調無徴葢必非缺一之說也生今之世承諸聖之表章經羣英之辯難我得以坐集千古之智折中其間豈不幸乎客有過曼寓者問通雅音義而及之且識其小辛巳涂月浮山愚者密記^古人說理事之音義轉假譬喻為多不可執後人之詳例以論也況有巵寓附㑹者乎楊氏曰說築傅巗之野築猶居也楚辭予築如云卜築王楙曰傅說胥靡乃傭也而古今以為刑人葢板築胥靡刑人相沿也莊子曰傅說騎箕尾此後世取以名星耳灊草曰鼎有實慎所之伊尹負鼎言負才也乃謂庖人遂作湯液天問縁鵠飾玉竟有修飾玉鼎之註弋說曰割烹如借箸聚米說命和羮之云也韓嬰引詩漢有游女而稱孔子至楚見佩瑱浣女使賜挑之王逸方朔皆曰路女方桑孔父取以自待子高荅平原君曰阿谷漂女之言出于近世何待容齋之辨乎禆諶草創左氏遂謂謀野甯戚飯牛遂作相牛之經青鳥來時註稱簡狄吞卵丣酉互取而旗畫烏兎之象共觸媧補夸逐羿射上古荒唐隨人傅㑹如云蛇身牛首猶鳶肩燕頷也爾雅云西至于王母穆傳西王母獻享天子其為西方國名明矣章亥歩地不必胼胝閶闔天門非關沖舉挂瓢惡聲仍是枕流潄石之話騎龍弄鳯其寔不過鷦鷯之枝自子思荅樂朔觀之訓詞喜于深厚加以上古方言後世屬文襲取生割是用約通其故以助讀書者但㑹其意勿為刻畫讔語所迷^孔融曰郊天鼓必麒麟之皮寫孝經當曽子家䇿乎漢儒解經類多臆說宋儒惟守宰理至于考索物理時制不逹其寔半依前人庿中行禮天子永無南面沂必溫泉正月何愛風涼半月周御分日可笑大房夏屋明證反遺束晳補六笙詩大學補格物章贅矣或問西山餓夫不食周粟有之乎程子曰不食周祿耳樂正子三月不下堂果禁歩乎速貧速朽蚤知有為靡有孑遺不以詞害鄭聲淫非鄭詩淫也可知回何敢死決不上告夫子血流漂杵孟子多此一疑美丘欲葬則瑗請前决不如陳澔之解矣^學易齋稿曰世以莊列寓言而寓實始于易方圓圖書萬變畢具初未嘗言理言事也畫前畫後非造閉解閉之所出耶龍狐牛馬杞莧梯茹皆象教引觸不作譬况者也化而言之曰法身曰牛車曰䤈眼曰六臂曰千手摩尼寳珠隨人變色破塵經巻龍樹入澥嗅而知之果恃鼻乎如㭨子大貯萬卷書天在山中大畜之象乘雲氣騎日月惟逹觀者方可與語^硎谷襍燒周易靈素以卜筮醫藥而全博士所職圖籍可收原自歴歴不獨弇中共壁也陳農購後托者加者譌者應不免耳古文尚書梅鷟議之郭公夏五顯然闕失明堂戴記漢儒補苴他如山經穆傳周末好事握竒六韜以兵而造秘焉堯日至虛而汲冢周書起牽牛秦節曰臘爵曰庶長而乃見春秋左氏傳豨黥韓覆乃載李斯之蒼頡篇若鶡冠鬻子鬼谷子華之類詎免張霸劉炫之忍俊耶劉子𤣥云郭子橫洞冥王子年拾遺全構虛詞用驚愚俗任昉述異殷芸小說沈約四公子唐杜陽襍編天寳遺事宋雲仙散録清異録相沿蝟起溫公作通鑑亦誤取天寳遺事況下此者乎西京襍記本葛洪作而以偽劉歆亢倉子本唐王士源作乘檮杌乃吾衍作元經出阮逸世以逸作孔叢出宋咸世以咸作朱子以麻衣出戴師愈黃東發以文子出徐靈府宋景濓以闗尹出孫定元美以元命包出張昇元瑞以三墳出毛漸升菴疑隂符出李筌赤鳥果然飛去龍威何處蔽辜賢刦追辨七言大是癡人說夢貝編壺史總屬諾臯隠形碔碌雲騢何為而受欺乎姑妄言之姑妄聴之但以消閒小學技藝皆可東坡招人說鬼固不如博奕也^馬子卿以石鼓為宇文時造弱侯以蘇綽傳證之吾衍鄭瑗之斷比干盤永叔少游之斷季札碑黃伯思以詛楚亞駞在烏氏而董斷為滹沱是也㑹稽李斯碑元申屠駉所刻范雲所讀在秦望山後分吳㑹葢古㑹稽大也何疑塗山為㑹稽乎元瑞據晉武咸寧五年譏升菴太康二年魏安釐王之誤則未見廣川書跋與書史也秦少游言南齊雍州發楚王冢得竹簡則襄陽也秦璽久亡段義楊桓熊翀所上者炫也周敬山之疏當矣段書不必盡信貴明其理或以考事或以辨名當物或以驗聲音稱謂之時變則秦漢以來之所造所附亦古今之徵也即如素問本草業者㳂加豈可以漢郡名而疑神農周公爾雅學者隨時増益自是通訓豈可以張仲而黜之不列十三經乎周髀捐悶夕桀疇人傳之寔乃有用之度數天然之至理禹之所治不可忽也何疑吐哺中無商高乎若嗜淺惡深一切疑之永叔疑文言象山慈湖疑繫傳至今郝京山何元子信文王八卦而疑伏羲先天圖豈不可笑辛巳曼寓隨筆^辨證說^是正古文必藉他證乃可明也博狼葆祠綽約果陏皆以史漢互證蘇□煴火有召信臣之㸐藴火為證與語區脫有漢書傳之甌脫為證食貨志一黄金一斤得晉灼說巴志黃龍而證觀于假貸乞匄而匄貸以明觀荀子之區蓋刋謬之丘區而丘蓋亦可明矣焦字孝然是光非先匡續子孝因訛俗而訛裕田疇子春史避作泰陶言無終其明證也觀公卿表通鑑之張譚可知匡衡傳之甄譚即張觀古今人表之尾生高尾生畝與小顔之尾生注而論語之微生為尾矣楚䇿黃歇說秦昭鬼神狐祥無所食得春申之孤傷新序之潢洋而明楊由傳風吹削哺得家訓削林滸滸而明本草留師密得郭璞黑蜂為笛師而明葵菘通稱何疑菜部得詩傳之園葵論衡之葵韭而明□脫跳脫足明平脫昆吾木吾足明金吾僕姑脈肚瓜椎終葵土瓜曰鉤□姑足明𤓰葵魁椎之聲碑下叭嗄足明負下未易居之語如旖旎十四變逶迤三十二變皆謰謱通證而得也智每駁定前人必不敢以無證妄說坤後得主六二直方之讀明有文言猗嗟名兮居居究究明見爾雅故敢于補攷亭耳觀于三獻爓一獻熟羮獻而汁獻涗于醆酒何疑浴尸必先掘坎為池推柩時填之則填池何疑康成竟讀汁獻為汁挲填池為奠徹非猶是箕子荄茲旅獒酋豪之臆耶^刋落折中說虞仲翔斷桺戼之失杜元凱有門閏之辨緇衣注疑割厥之聲西京雜記言璞朔之類魯論之通歸饋雞口轉為雞尸往往而然漁仲謂武从□【古舞作□撫作□可證左傳附㑹止戈耳】右軍改陳从車稚川加彡為影于理茍通雖剏何硋泀溮可別而□丘則衍【圗經兖州泀水申州溮川三蒼作□說文有丘】逢逄可分而佮敆實復安石喜為鑿說何異王育宦光主為專別甚于佩觿蓋自篆籒流為真草衛包改去古文所存舊跡定有乖異北齊大顔曰世間小學不通古今必依小篆是正書記凡爾雅三蒼說文豈盡蒼頡本指哉亦是隨代損益何况後來夾漈所謂眼學耳學日以難矣管子六峜光武紀繡镼沮渠人趙𢾺山海經之□廣韻字彚韻㑹小補皆漏謂宜略耶孫休名子武曌強造何具録乎不羮音郎金選音刷陸法言孫愐皆遺之而先儒己誤者犧尊音娑業見辨于劉董【劉杳董逌】玉篇之䵬久條論于家訓之推反皆收列全不分疏又況道㗖蹈函之承誤較顜講斠之紛辨而望其攷定耶【孔平仲曰荀子禮論云郊止于天子社至于諸侯道及士大夫言祭門及行也曰井曰行皆謂路也別本史記作㗖司馬貞因曰含苞也士大夫得苞立社也楊倞曰當是道誤為蹈又誤為㗖今史記直作函字音含矣一字而四變也升菴譏溫公通鑑改斠作較元美曰乃漢書改也智按今監本凌本皆作講若畫一注或作較師古曰謹和也史記作顜若注徐廣音古項反一音較漢書作講一作覯楊王各見本耳無作斠者以斠音較而誤】

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zhong qi jian qi bu xing hu ke you guo man yu zhe wen tong ya yin yi er ji zhi qie shi qi xiao xin si tu yue fu shan yu zhe mi ji gu ren shuo li shi zhi yin yi zhuan jia pi yu wei duo bu ke zhi hou ren zhi xiang li yi lun ye kuang you zhi yu fu㑹 zhe hu yang shi yue shuo zhu fu yan zhi ye zhu you ju ye chu ci yu zhu ru yun bu zhu wang mao yue fu shuo xu mi nai yong ye er gu jin yi wei xing ren ge ban zhu xu mi xing ren xiang yan ye zhuang zi yue fu shuo qi ji wei ci hou shi qu yi ming xing er qian cao yue ding you shi shen suo zhi yi yin fu ding yan fu cai ye nai wei pao ren sui zuo tang ye tian wen yuan hu shi yu jing you xiu shi yu ding zhi zhu yi shuo yue ge peng ru jie zhu ju mi shuo ming he geng zhi yun ye han ying yin shi han you you nv er cheng kong zi zhi chu jian pei tian huan nv shi si tiao zhi wang yi fang shuo jie yue lu nv fang sang kong fu qu yi zi dai zi gao da ping yuan jun yue e gu piao nv zhi yan chu yu jin shi he dai rong zhai zhi bian hu bei chen cao chuang zuo shi 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zhou yu fen ri ke xiao da fang xia wu ming zheng fan yi shu xi bu liu sheng shi da xue bu ge wu zhang zhui yi huo wen xi shan e fu bu shi zhou su you zhi hu cheng zi yue bu shi zhou lu er le zheng zi san yue bu xia tang guo jin bu hu su pin su xiu zao zhi you wei mi you jie yi bu yi ci hai zheng sheng yin fei zheng shi yin ye ke zhi hui he gan si jue bu shang gao fu zi xue liu piao chu meng zi duo ci yi yi mei qiu yu zang ze yuan qing qian jue bu ru chen hao zhi jie yi xue yi zhai gao yue shi yi zhuang lie yu yan er yu shi shi yu yi fang yuan tu shu wan bian bi ju chu wei chang yan li yan shi ye hua qian hua hou fei zao bi jie bi zhi suo chu ye long hu niu ma qi xian ti ru jie xiang jiao yin chu bu zuo pi kuang zhe ye hua er yan zhi yue fa shen yue niu che yue䤈 yan yue liu bei yue qian shou mo ni bao zhu sui ren bian se po chen jing juan long shu ru xie xiu er zhi zhi guo shi bi hu ru㭨 zi da zhu wan juan shu tian zai shan zhong da chu zhi xiang cheng yun qi qi ri yue wei da guan zhe fang ke yu yu xing gu za shao zhou yi ling su yi bu shi yi yao er quan bo shi suo zhi tu ji ke shou yuan zi li li bu du yan zhong gong bi ye chen nong gou hou tuo zhe jia zhe e zhe ying bu mian er gu wen shang shu mei zhuo yi zhi guo gong xia wu xian ran que shi ming tang dai ji han ru bu ju ta ru shan jing mu chuan zhou mo hao shi wo qi liu tao yi bing er zao mi yan yao ri zhi xu er ji zhong zhou shu qi qian niu qin jie yue la jue yue shu chang er nai jian chun qiu zuo shi chuan xi qing han fu nai zai li si zhi cang jie pian ruo he guan yu zi gui gu zi hua zhi lei ju mian zhang ba liu xuan zhi ren jun ye liu zi𤣥 yun guo zi heng dong ming wang zi nian shi yi quan gou xu ci yong jing yu su ren fang shu yi yin yun xiao shuo shen yue si gong zi tang du yang za bian tian bao yi shi song yun xian san lu qing yi lu xiang yan wei qi wen gong zuo tong jian yi wu qu tian bao yi shi kuang xia ci zhe hu xi jing za ji ben ge hong zuo er yi wei liu xin kang cang zi ben tang wang shi yuan zuo cheng 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an tai kang er nian wei an li wang zhi wu ze wei jian guang chuan shu ba yu shu shi ye qin shao you yan nan qi yong zhou fa chu wang zhong de zhu jian ze xiang yang ye qin xi jiu wang duan yi yang huan xiong chong suo shang zhe xuan ye zhou jing shan zhi shu dang yi duan shu bu bi jin xin gui ming qi li huo yi kao shi huo yi bian ming dang wu huo yi yan sheng yin cheng wei zhi shi bian ze qin han yi lai zhi suo zao suo fu yi gu jin zhi zhi ye ji ru su wen ben cao ye zhe㳂 jia qi ke yi han jun ming er yi shen nong zhou gong er ya xue zhe sui shi zeng yi zi shi tong xun qi ke yi zhang zhong er chu zhi bu lie shi san jing hu zhou bi juan men xi jie chou ren chuan zhi shi nai you yong zhi du shu tian ran zhi zhi li yu zhi suo zhi bu ke hu ye he yi tu bu zhong wu shang gao hu ruo shi qian e shen yi qie yi zhi yong shu yi wen yan xiang shan ci hu yi xi chuan zhi jin hao jing shan he yuan zi xin wen wang ba gua er yi fu xi xian tian tu qi bu ke xiao xin si man yu sui bi bian zheng shuo shi zheng gu wen bi jie ta zheng nai ke ming ye bo lang bao ci chuo yue guo duo jie yi shi han hu zheng su□ yun huo you zhao xin chen zhi㸐 yun huo wei zheng yu yu qu tuo you han shu chuan zhi ou tuo wei zheng shi huo zhi yi huang jin yi jin de jin zhuo shuo ba zhi huang long er zheng guan yu jia dai qi gai er gai dai yi ming guan xun zi zhi qu gai qian miu zhi qiu qu er qiu gai yi ke ming yi jiao zi xiao ran shi guang fei xian kuang xu zi xiao yin e su er e yu tian chou zi chun shi bi zuo tai tao yan wu zhong qi ming zheng ye guan gong qing biao tong jian zhi zhang tan ke zhi kuang heng chuan zhi zhen tan ji zhang guan gu jin ren biao zhi wei sheng gao wei sheng mu yu xiao yan zhi wei sheng zhu er lun yu zhi wei sheng wei wei yi chu䇿 huang xie shuo qin zhao gui shen hu xiang wu suo shi de chun shen zhi gu shang xin xu zhi huang yang er ming yang you chuan feng chui xue bu de jia xun xue lin hu hu er ming ben cao liu shi mi de guo pu hei feng wei di shi er ming kui song tong cheng he yi cai 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cong□【 gu wu zuo□ fu zuo□ ke zheng zuo chuan fu㑹 zhi ge er】 you jun gai chen cong che zhi chuan jia shan wei ying yu li gou tong sui chuan he ai si shi ke bie er□ qiu ze yan【 tu jing yan zhou si shui shen zhou shi chuan san cang zuo□ shuo wen you qiu】 feng pang ke fen er ge ge shi fu an shi xi wei zao shuo he yi wang yu huan guang zhu wei zhuan bie shen yu pei xi gai zi zhuan zhou liu wei zhen cao wei bao gai qu gu wen suo cun jiu ji ding you guai yi bei qi da yan yue shi jian xiao xue bu tong gu jin bi yi xiao zhuan shi zheng shu ji fan er ya san cang shuo wen qi jin cang jie ben zhi zai yi shi sui dai sun yi he kuang hou lai jia ji suo wei yan xue er xue ri yi nan yi guan zi liu ji guang wu ji xiu qu ju qu ren zhao𢾺 shan hai jing zhi□ guang yun zi hui yun㑹 xiao bu jie lou wei yi lüe ye sun xiu ming zi wu zhao qiang zao he ju lu hu bu geng yin lang jin xuan yin shua lu fa yan sun mian jie yi zhi er xian ru ji wu zhe xi zun yin suo ye jian bian yu liu dong【 liu yao dong you】 yu pian zhi䵬 jiu tiao lun yu jia xun zhi tui fan jie shou lie quan bu fen shu you kuang dao㗖 dao han zhi cheng wu jiao jiang jiang jiao zhi fen bian er wang qi kao ding ye【 kong ping zhong yue xun zi li lun yun jiao zhi yu tian zi she zhi yu zhu hou dao ji shi da fu yan ji men ji xing ye yue jing yue xing jie wei lu ye bie ben shi ji zuo㗖 si ma zhen yin yue han bao ye shi da fu de bao li she ye yang jing yue dang shi dao wu wei dao you wu wei㗖 jin shi ji zhi zuo han zi yin han yi yi zi er si bian ye sheng an ji wen gong tong jian gai jiao zuo jiao yuan mei yue nai han shu gai ye zhi an jin jian ben ling ben jie zuo jiang ruo hua yi zhu huo zuo jiao shi gu yue jin he ye shi ji zuo jiang ruo zhu xu guang yin gu xiang fan yi yin jiao han shu zuo jiang yi zuo gou yang wang ge jian ben er wu zuo jiao zhe yi jiao yin jiao er wu】

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推荐 水 名 可 之 時

孟子·告子下·卷六
^白圭白:「丹之治水也愈於禹。」^孟子曰:「子過矣。禹之治水,水之道也,是故禹以四海爲壑。今吾子以鄰國爲壑。水逆付謂之澤水——一降水者,洪水也—一仁人之所惡也。吾子過矣。」^孟子曰:「君子不亮,惡乎執?」

青青水中蒲三首
青青水中蒲,下有一雙魚。 君今上隴去,我在與誰居。 青青水中蒲,長在水中居。 寄語浮萍草,相隨我不如。 青青水中蒲,葉短不出水。 婦人不下堂,行子在萬里。

憶紫溪
長憶紫溪春欲盡,千巖交映水回斜。巖空水滿溪自紫,水態更籠南燭花。

孟子·萬章下·卷五
^告子曰:「性猶湍水也,決諸東方則東流,決諸西方則西流。人性之無分於善不善也,猶水之無分於東西也。」^孟子曰:「水信無分於東西。無分子上下乎?人性之善也,猶水之就下也。人無有不善,水無有不下。今天水,搏而躍之,可使過顙;激而行之,可使在山。是豈水之性哉?其勢則然也。人之可使爲不善,其性亦猶是也。」

孟子·萬章下·卷六
^告子曰:「性猶湍水也,決諸東方則東流,決諸西方則西流。人性之無分於善不善也,猶水之無分於東西也。」^孟子曰:「水信無分於東西。無分子上下乎?人性之善也,猶水之就下也。人無有不善,水無有不下。今天水,搏而躍之,可使過顙;激而行之,可使在山。是豈水之性哉?其勢則然也。人之可使爲不善,其性亦猶是也。」

荷葉杯·五月南塘水滿
五月南塘水滿, 吹斷,鯉魚風。 小娘停棹濯纖指, 水底,見花紅。

送裴明州(一本有郎中徵三字)效南朝體
沅水連湘水,千波萬浪中。 知郎未得去,慚愧石尤風。